numerous advances that I have seen. The next step was the glass fibers that bring brilliant light from the outside through the cystoscope into the bladder, akin to a reversal of the initial placement of the outside light source to the tip of the instrument. Then appeared the Hopkins Lens system, which created a bigger, brighter and sharper image than anything we had before. It is hard to believe that lawyers at Johns Hopkins felt it important to sue for fear that the name of this lens system, named after Harold H. Hopkins from the United Kingdom, would reflect badly on the name of their institution, should there be any problem with this lens system. Finally in my later years of practice, I saw the merging of light transmission through glass fibers and viewing the image through glass fibers within the same system, a true fiber-optic system: flexible, thin, easy-to-use and with a channel to allow operators to perform aspirations and cell harvesting for diagnostic purposes.
One of the most rewarding experiences of my life as curator also relates to the cystoscope. The only remaining Lichtleiter had been kept since 1806 in what was then the military academy of medicine in